Here two receptacles in one box are wired using the device terminals. With this arrangement, if receptacle #1 fails, receptacle #2 may also fail if failure is due to physical damage. However, if the copper tab conductors between the terminals remain intact, even if #1 stops functioning, receptacle #2 will probably still work.
In this wiring, a switch and receptacle are in the same box and the switch controls the power to the outlet. The hot wire connects to the bottom terminal on the switch and the top output goes to the receptacle hot terminal. The neutral wire from the source connects directly to the receptacle neutral.
The hot wire to the fan in a fan/light kit will usually be black and the light wire will be blue. The white wire is usually the neutral which is always connected directly to the source neutral, either at the source or through a splice in the switch box. The white wire may also be used to carry current when necessary.
This diagram shows two switches in the same box with two separate 120 volt sources. Three-wire cable is supplying the source for both switches with the black and red wires going to the bottom switch terminals. The black wire from each light is connected to the top terminal of their respective switch. The white and ground wires are spliced to run to each light fixture.