The hot wire to the fan in a fan/light kit will usually be black and the light wire will be blue. The white wire is usually the neutral which is always connected directly to the source neutral, either at the source or through a splice in the switch box. The white wire may also be used to carry current when necessary.
Here the source is at the fan/light and a switch loop runs to the wall switch. The source is wired directly to the fan and spliced through to the switch. With this arrangement the light is controlled with the switch and the fan is hardwired for pull-chain control.
This page contains wiring diagrams for two outlets in one box. Included are arrangements for 2 receptacles in one box, a switch and receptacle outlet in one box, and 2 switches in the same box. In this diagram, two duplex receptacle outlets are wired using pigtails spliced to connect the terminals of each to the source wires.
This gfci wiring provides protection to a duplex receptacle. By connecting the load terminals on the last gfci, the receptacle is protected and can be used just as if it were one of the gfci receptacles. One ground fault circuit interrupter at the beginning of the circuit can be used in the same way to protect multiple, subsequent receptacles as illustrated in the diagram below.